Questioning and predicting
Students question and predict by:
- formulating questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically
- predicting outcomes based on observations and scientific knowledge
What is a good question in Science? A good question leads to an investigation.This could be an experiment that you conduct ( first-hand investigation )or research others findings ( second-hand investigation)
Collecting and using data and information
Students identify data to be collected for an investigation by:
- a.describing the purpose of an investigation
- b.explaining why certain types of information need to be collected in a range of investigation types
- c.selecting possible sources of data, including secondary sources, relevant to the investigation
- d.justifying why variables need to be kept constant if reliable first-hand data is to be collected in controlled experiments
Resourced filled with experiment ideas and the theory behind them
Students plan first-hand investigations by:
- a.planning and selecting appropriate investigation methods, including fieldwork and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data
- b.describing a logical procedure for undertaking a range of investigation types( see below in “writing up an experiment- planning” for more info)
- c.designing controlled experiments to collect valid first-hand data
- d.specifying the dependent and independent variables for controlled experiments
- e.accounting for the use of an experimental control as appropriate
Examples of investigations
Fieldwork– this involves research outside of the classroom or via virtual means. Science excursions offer a great opportunity to investigate the world in a tangible way.
Experiments and investigations – These are the foundations of Science and are key to answering questions. You will be given many opportunities to practice your skills and be experimenting throughout the stage 4 and 5 science courses.Surveys- Surveys are a great way to start your research into a particular area, especially if you are trying to find out peoples opinions. This website has some useful tips.
Research – Research is a very important skill that is needed to practice and understand concepts and ideas for any subject. Research also involves being able to communicate your findings to a specific audience using scientific terms and conventions.
See the research and writing skills page for more information.
Equipment and safety
Always follow teacher instruction specific to your laboratory. Every school is different, however, we all must undertake practical activities in a safe way. Here is a quick general safety guide video.
DET safety procedures can be found here( staff access only)
Students choose equipment or resources for an investigation by:
a.identifying appropriate equipment and materials
- You will also need to learn how to draw equipment using 2- dimensional scientific diagrams. The following video gives a brief overview of how to do it.
b.identifying the units to be used in collecting data
d.assessing risks and addressing ethical issues associated with these methods
How to use different science equipment
How to use a stereo microscope, also known as a dissecting microscope.
Writing up an experiment – planning
Some websites and information to help you write an experiment.
Working scientifically. Information from the senior subject Investigating science which has some useful videoes and information.
|What am I going to investigate?|
|What do I think will happen? Why?|
|Which variables am I going to:
• keep the same?
|How will I make it a fair test?|
|What equipment will I need?|
|Can my results be presented as a graph?|
|What do my results tell me? Are there any relationships, patterns or trends?|
|How can I explain the relationships, patterns or trends in my results?|
|What did I find out about the problem I investigated? How was the outcome different from my prediction?|
|What difficulties did I experience in doing this investigation?|
|How could I improve this investigation, eg fairness, accuracy?|
Some work samples of students work This has examples of different ways investigations can be written.
Students conduct investigations by:
a.individually and collaboratively using appropriate investigation methods, including fieldwork and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data
b.safely constructing, assembling and manipulating identified equipment
c.selecting and using appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and accurately collect and record data
d.using appropriate units for measuring physical quantities
f.evaluating the effectiveness of the planned procedure, considering risk factors and ethical issues and suggesting improvements as appropriate
Processing and analysing information
Students question and predict by:
a.formulating questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically
b.predicting outcomes based on observations and scientific knowledge
c. Selecting and constructing an appropriate table, type of diagram, table or graph (histogram or sector, column or line graph) to present information and show relationships clearly and succinctly using digital technologies as appropriate
c.using appropriate units for physical quantities and symbols to express relationships, including mathematical ones
Students solve problems by:
a.describing strategies to develop a range of possible solutions to an identified problem
b.assessing strategies that have been identified as possible solutions to an identified problem
c.applying the processes of Working Scientifically in developing creative solutions to problems
d.using cause-and-effect relationships to explain ideas
e.using models to explain phenomena and make predictions
f.applying critical thinking in considering suggested proposals, solutions and conclusions, including a consideration of risk
g.evaluating different approaches used to solve the problem
h..proposing ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression