Earth and Space, Year 9 and 10

Earth and space year 10: UNDERSTANDING OUR UNIVERSE AND ITS ORIGIN

Year 10 term 4 

The universe is so large that no words could really describe it. The following video gives you an idea of the scale of the universe.

Planet Science Fiction Space Sci Fi Star Universe

 

How has scientific understanding affected how we view the universe? 

ES1: Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community.

Outline some of the major features contained in the universe, including galaxies, stars, solar systems and nebulae

Describe, using examples, some technological developments that have advanced scientific understanding about the universe

Use appropriate scales to describe differences in sizes of and distances between structures making up the universe

Identify that all objects exert a force of gravity on all other objects in the universe

Use scientific evidence to outline how the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin of the universe and its age.

Outline how scientific thinking about the origin of the universe is refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge and understanding in Stage 4.

  • Relate colours of stars to their age, size and distance from the Earth
  • describe evidence used to support estimates of time in the universe
  • describe some recent contributions made by Australian scientists in the exploration and study of the universe
  • outline examples where advances in science and emerging science and technologies significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities in areas such as astrophysics, geophysics, space science and vulcanology

Earth and space year 10:

EARTHS GEOLOGY AND ITS LANDSCAPES

Year 10 term 4

How does plate tectonics theory contribute to our understanding of the Earth’s physical structure?

ES2: The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement.

Outline how the theory of plate tectonics changed ideas about the structure of the Earth and continental movement over geological time

  • Structure of the earth interactive  In the early part of the 20th century, geologists studied the vibrations (seismic waves) generated by earthquakes to learn more about the structure of the earth’s interior. They discovered that it is made up of these distinct layers: the crust, the mantle, and the core.
  • summary of the theory of plate tectonics from Live Science including videoes and animations regarding changes on earth brought about by moving continents.

Relate movements of the Earth’s plates to mantle convection currents and gravitational forces

  •  The Pangea Pop-up. The supercontinent Pangaea, with its connected South America and Africa, broke apart 200 million years ago. But the continents haven’t stopped shifting — the tectonic plates beneath our feet (in Earth’s two top layers, the lithosphere and the asthenosphere) are still traveling at about the rate your fingernails grow. Michael Molina discusses the catalysts and consequences of continental drift. A TEDEd video.
  •  A TEDEd video on plate tectonics explained Watch the video, and discuss some of the vocabularies that might be confusing you.  Rewatch and make sure you are catching the key terms. tectonic plate, subduction, mantle, converging, diverging.
  • The engine that drives the Earth. Peering into the mantle to reveal the inner working of our planet from the magazine Oceanis

Outline how the theory of plate tectonics explains earthquakes, volcanic activity and formation of new landforms

  • Waves: seismic Images and Techtonics a video by Clickview. The programme then looks at how different waves behave depending on the nature of the material they are passing through. It shows how seismic survey teams make use of these differences in velocity, absorption, refraction and reflection to find out about underlying rock structures.

Describe how some technological developments have increased scientific understanding of global patterns in geological activity, including in the Asia-Pacific region

See links above that have many examples.

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • discuss technological developments that have extended the ability of scientists to collect information about, and monitor events in, the natural world
  • outline examples where advances in science and emerging science and technologies significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities in areas such as astrophysics, geophysics, space science and vulcanology.

Earth and space year 9: EARTHS GLOBAL SYSTEMS AND CLIMATE PATTERNS

Year 9 term 3 

earth
Global systems keep the Earth habitable for all life.

 

How do the global systems on Earth interact to affect climate?

ES3: People use scientific knowledge to evaluate claims, explanations or predictions in relation to interactions involving the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere

Global systems and spheres 

Outline how global systems rely on interactions involving the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, including the carbon cycle

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Image source 

Impacts of natural events on the Earths spheres

Describe some impacts of natural events, including cyclones, volcanic eruptions or earthquakes, on the Earth’s spheres

Cyclones

Volcanic eruptions

Earthquakes 

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • discuss technological developments that have extended the ability of scientists to collect information about, and monitor events in, the natural world
  • examine the factors that drive deep ocean currents, their role in regulating climate and their effects on marine life
  • research on how computer modelling has improved knowledge and predictability of phenomena, eg atmospheric pollution, ocean salinity and climate change
  • outline examples where advances in science and emerging science and technologies significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities in areas such as astrophysics, geophysics, space science and vulcanology

How does human activity affect global systems on Earth?

Evaluate scientific evidence of some current issues affecting society that are the result of human activity on global systems, eg the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, effect of climate change on sea levels, long-term effects of waste management and loss of biodiversity.

Background information, topics, interactives to help you with researching these effects.

Human-Caused Global Warming-The evidence and measurements behind this phenomena. It also includes links to data and  lots of background explanations

Climate change facts booklet with questions and answers from the Australian Academy of Science

Greenhouse effect

  • What is the greenhouse effect? An interactive that summarised the greenhouse effect. It also includes information about carbon and the feedback mechanisms in place that affects how carbon is cycled through the spheres.
  • The Great Barrier Reef: Coral, Carbon and Climate Change a video from click view. The future of the Great Barrier Reef, one of the world’s most significant marine environments, is under threat due to modern industry and agriculture. Featuring interviews with reef experts, including the director of the GBR Marine Park Authority, accredited reef divers and a Reef Guardians cane farmer, this programme presents an outstanding case study of environmental management for middle/senior secondary students.

Ozone layer

  • Ozone Friend And Foe. A click view video investigates the chemistry, the causes of ozone and its effect of ozone on the environment.
  • NASA ozone watch contains models of ozone and information about ozone

Sea level change

  • Sea level rises and click view video that shows a catalyst resources about sea level rise as a response to human-caused global warming. Sea levels are rising and the consequences could be huge. By the end of this century, areas that currently flood once every hundred years could start to flood several times every year. The rising sea is the sleeping giant of climate change.
  • Interactive sea level rise maps  and another resource called Coastal risk Australia  This BETA version of Coastal Risk Australia (CRA) has been opened for public consultation to show you what the Australian coast may look like in 2100. It is an interactive map tool designed to communicate coastal inundation associated with sea level rise to the year 2100. Using Google Earth Engine technology, CRA allows you to investigate the extent of coastal inundation using the latest 3D models of the Australian coastline. Data have been captured using airborne LiDAR technology to create detailed digital elevation models (DEMs), which are then combined with ‘bucket-fill’ inundation modelling to create the map-based visualisations.
  • What sea level rise means for Australia an article from the Australian Academy of science.

Waste management

biodiversity loss

  • Water an biodiversity a click view video  This introductory learning unit explains what biodiversity is, allowing students to understand how the availability of water determines the diversity of life on Earth and the different ways in which water relates to living beings.
  • Climate Change Is Becoming a Top Threat to Biodiversity. Climate change will be the fastest-growing cause of species loss in the Americas by midcentury, according to a new set of reports from the leading global organization on ecosystems and biodiversity

Discuss the reasons different groups in society may use or weight criteria differently to evaluate claims, explanations or predictions in making decisions about contemporary issues involving interactions of the Earth’s spheres.

e.g. coal seam gas extraction 

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image source 

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • discuss the development and implications of international agreements relating to biodiversity and climate change, eg the original 1987 Montreal Protocol, 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference