Earth and Space, Year 7 and 8

Earth and Space Year 7: ROCKS AND GEOLOGY

Year 7 term 2

Where do rocks come from?

ES1: Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales.

  1. Describe the structure of the Earth in terms of core, mantle, crust, and lithosphere
  2. How do different landforms form with physical and chemical weathering, erosion and deposition?
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Some more information can be found here.

What are the origins of and relationships between sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks?

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The rock cycle. Click here to learn more.

How do we classify rocks? 

  1. Identify that sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals
  2. Classify a variety of common rocks and minerals into groups according to their observable properties. Some properties can be investigated by using ;

There are many properties that can be used to classify rocks. This includes hardness, mineral streak colour, reactivity to acid, magnetism, fluorescence and crystal structure.

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Mohs hardness test can be used to classify rocks and minerals. Image source.

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 4.

  • Investigate the role of forces and energy in the formation of different types of rocks and minerals

How diamonds are formed 

How do we know how old rocks are?

  1. Outline how geological history can be interpreted in a sequence of horizontal sedimentary layers, in which the oldest are at the base and the youngest at the top
  2. How are fossils formed?
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The process of fossilisation simplified. More information can be found here

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 4.

How do we use rocks in society?

Describe examples to show how people use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in occupations related to the exploration, mining or processing of minerals in Australia.

Here are some examples;

Uses of rocks and minerals by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.

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Revision websites and quizzes 

From the geological society-review the main concepts of the rock cycle and weathering and then test your knowledge with some multiple choice quizzes.

Earth and Space Year 7: DISCOVERING THE SOLAR SYSTEM

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lunar eclipse from space image source from NASA

How can we use the relative positions of the Sun, Earth and Moon to predict phenomena on Earth? 

Year 7 term 2 

ES2: Scientific knowledge changes as new evidence becomes available. Some technological developments and scientific discoveries have significantly changed people’s understanding of the solar system.

  1. Explain that predictable phenomena on the Earth, including day and night, seasons and eclipses are caused by the relative positions of the sun, the Earth, and the moon.

Click view videos( sign in required) :

Other resources

  • NASA science website has amazing images and resources to help you visualise eclipses, earth rotation. It also has a load of information about current space missions and technology to explore space.
  • solar and lunar eclipses- a website the will show you where and when they are going to happen next. I contain detailed maps, animations and has information about eclipses.

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 4.

  • Describe the effect of the forces of the sun and moon on the hydrosphere

for example tides

How has new scientific evidence changed the model of the solar system?

2. Show, using examples, how ideas by people from different cultures have contributed to the current understanding of the solar system.

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The Pleiades are seven sisters in Wiradjuri traditions, called Mulayndynan Stellarium, Wiradjuri artist Scott ‘Sauce’ Towney

 

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Compare historical and current models of the solar system to show how models are modified or rejected as a result of new scientific evidence.

How has technology helped us understand the solar system?

Describe some examples of how technological advances have led to discoveries and increased scientific understanding of the solar system.

Earth and Space Year 8:  MANAGING OUR EARTHS RESOURCES

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image from this source

Year 8 term 4 

How can we utilise scientific understanding and technology to effectively manage our earth resources?

ES3: Scientific knowledge influences the choices people make in regard to the use and management of the Earth’s resources.

1.Classify a range of the Earth’s resources as renewable and non- renewable and non-renewable

2. Describe uses of a variety of natural and made resources extracted from the biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere

A summary of renewable and non-renewable resources 

3. What are some general features of some non-renewable resources, including metal ores and fossil fuels?

4. Investigate some strategies used by people to conserve and manage non-renewable resources, eg recycling and the alternative use of natural and made resources

  • Can seaweed save the world?  Professor Tim Flannery investigates how seaweed is helping to save the world – from growing the foods of the future, helping clean polluted water and even combating climate change. Growing seaweed is now a ten billion dollar a year global industry. Tim travels to Korea to see some of the biggest seaweed farms in the world and meets the scientists who are hoping to create a seaweed revolution here in Australia.
  • Feeding Australia- A sustainable future  We’re a nation with a big appetite and, as the population moves towards 40 million by 2050, it’s only going to get bigger. Chef Paul West, Nutritionist Professor Clare Collins and Dr Noby Leong reveal how technology is set to transform food production. Not just by growing more but by making more of what we grow and by future proofing our precious crops against an uncertain future.
  • WAR ON WASTE  the website has resources focusing on reducing our waste.
  • solving the problem of waste from ABC splash

5. Discuss different viewpoints people may use to weight criteria in making decisions about the use of a major non-renewable resource found in Australia.

 

What are some choices that need to be made when considering whether to use scientific and technological advances to obtain a resource from Earth’s spheres?

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 4.

  • Investigate examples of how scientific knowledge has developed through the collaboration of experts from across the disciplines of Science, eg space exploration and resource management
  • Describe ways in which technology has increased the variety of made resources

How can we use scientific understanding and technology to manage our water resources?

ES4: Science understanding influences the development of practices in areas of human activity such as industry, agriculture and marine and terrestrial resource management

  1. How is water is an important resource? How does it move through our environment?

 

2. Explain the water cycle in terms of the physical processes involved.

  1. How has scientific knowledge of the water cycle has influenced the development of household, industrial and agricultural water management practices?
  1. Research how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ knowledge is being used in decisions to care for country and place, eg terrestrial and aquatic resource management

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Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 4.

  • Debate the economic and environmental impacts of mining and resource exploration

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Kimberly Dinosaurs –Mark Horstman finds dinosaur tracks in the Kimberley, which are threatened by industrial development.

  • Investigate examples of how scientific knowledge has developed through the collaboration of experts from across the disciplines of Science, eg space exploration and resource management