Chemical world, Year 9 and 10

Ensure that you go to and view the Chemical world stage 4 page, before beginning here.

h atom
Image of a hydrogen atom.More information and image sources from New Scientist Magazine

Chemical world Year 9: ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

Year 9 term 1

Glossaries

Atoms and elements

Arranging the elements in the periodic table

Family groupings in periodic tables

Electrons and the periodic table ( additional)

How has our understanding of atoms changed over time?

CW1: Scientific understanding changes and is refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community.

1.Outline historical developments of the atomic theory to demonstrate how models and theories have been contested and refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community

  • In search of giants, The building blocks of matter ( Prof Brian Cox)
  • TED lesson: The 2,400-year search for the atom – Theresa Doud
    How do we know what matter is made of? The quest for the atom has been a long one, beginning 2,400 years ago with the work of a Greek philosopher and later continued by a Quaker and a few Nobel Prize-winning scientists. Theresa Doud details the history of atomic theory.

Have you ever seen an atom? 

What are atoms made up of and how can their structure be described? 

  1. Identify that all matter is made of atoms which are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons
  2. Describe the structure of atoms in terms of the nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons

Atom Builder interactive Could you assemble a model of an atom (one of the first 10 elements) from protons, neutrons, and electrons? Along the way, you’ll explore subatomic particles and how they combine to form atoms. You will also compare two ways of modelling atoms. Learn about isotopes (different forms of the same chemical element). Use nuclear symbols to represent some of them.

How do we use elements that possess radioactivity?

An excellent comprehensive resource of radioactive elements is from ANSTO

  1. Identify that natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms, releasing particles and energy.

Marie Skłodowska Curie’s revolutionary research laid the groundwork for our understanding of physics and chemistry, blazing trails in oncology, technology, medicine, and nuclear physics, to name a few. But what did she actually do? Shohini Ghose expounds on some of Marie Skłodowska Curie’s most revolutionary discoveries.

  • TED lesson: Radioactivity: Expect the unexpected – Steve Weatherell
Neutrons don’t change into protons. Except, sometimes, they do. Radioactivity is the process under which the nucleus can change spontaneously from one element to another. Steve Weatherell suggests that we acknowledge both the usefulness and danger inherent in harvesting radioactivity.

What are some issues with the use of radioactive materials?

  1. Evaluate the benefits and problems associated with medical and industrial uses of nuclear energy.

When we hear the word radiation, it’s tempting to picture huge explosions and frightening mutations. But that’s not the full story — radiation also applies to rainbows and a doctor examining an X-ray. So what is it, really, and how much should we worry about its effects? Matt Anticole describes the different types of radiation.

Clickview video resources( sign in required)

 Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • research the development of ideas about the nature of radioactivity
radiactive
Image source

A-Guide-to-Different-Common-Types-of-Radiation
Image source.

How are elements organised in the periodic table?

CW2: The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the Periodic Table.

Here is a link to an interactive periodic table with information and facts about every element. There are many others as well.

How are atoms and elements represented in the periodic table? 

  1. Identify the atom as the smallest unit of an element and that it can be represented by a symbol
  2. What makes one atom different from another? Compare the amounts of protons, neutrons, and electrons in atoms.
  3. How are elements organised in the periodic table?

How can the periodic table be used to predict some properties of elements? 

  1. How is the placement of elements in the periodic table related to their properties?
  2. Predict, using the Periodic Table, the properties of some common elements

Valencies and ions

Click on this link to see a periodic table with common ionic charges. Note that transition metals can have multiple valencies as they can utilise more than one “shell” during chemical reactions. Therefore it not required that you would be able to work out the valency of the transition elements.

Video lessons to help you with various aspects of elements using a periodic table.

How has creativity, logical reasoning and scientific evidence available at the time, contributed to the development of the modern Periodic Table?

Clickview videos( sign in required)

 

PeriodicTable.png
image source 

 

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • use models to describe the arrangement of electrons in the energy levels of common elements

lewis dot structures video lesson

  • conduct flame tests and explain the colours in terms of subatomic structure

 

TheElements500
A nice book full of amazing pictures and information about the elements.Available in many libraries.( I have no connection to the publisher)Link to his website here.

 

Chemical World year 10:PRODUCING USEFUL SUBSTANCES THROUGH CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Year 10 Term 2

91496-050-BFAF3F35.jpg
Combustion reaction.Image source

 

CW3:  Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed

What is the smallest component of a chemical substance?

  1. Recall that all matter is composed of atoms and has mass.

A quick recap video on atomic number and mass. The topic of atoms and the periodic table above has more information.

What are some common chemical compounds?

  1. Identify a range of compounds using their common names and chemical formulae
  2. Classify compounds into groups based on common chemical characteristics.

Valencies and ions

Click on this link to see a periodic table with common ionic charges. Note that transition metals can have multiple valencies as they can utilise more than one “shell” during chemical reactions. Therefore it not required that you would be able to work out the valency of the transition elements.

Video lessons to help you with various aspects of elements using a periodic table.

Investigate a range of types of important chemical reactions that occur in non-living systems and involve energy transfer, including:

Combustion

Corrosion

Precipitation

Acids reactions including metals and carbonates

Neutralisation

Decomposition

What is happening to the elements, molecules, and compounds in a chemical reaction? 

  1. Construct word equations from observations and written descriptions of a range of   chemical reactions
  2.  What happens when new substances are formed in a chemical reaction. Is anything created or destroyed? Explain.

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • balance a range of common chemical equations( the reaction links above contain information about balancing equations)

What are some important chemical reactions that we depend on each day?

Identify some examples of important chemical reactions that occur in living systems and involve energy transfer, including;

Respiration 

Reactions involving acids such as occur during digestion 

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for the following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • construct simple electrochemical cells using fruit and describe energy transfer
  • research the structure of small portable electrochemical cells, eg mercury cells and rechargeable batteries
  • investigate the processes involved in the production of new materials from synthetic fibres
  • research ways that are used to restore and prevent corrosion of a submerged object

How can our knowledge of chemical reactions help manufacture new products? 

CW4: Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates and involve energy transfer

How is energy distributed in a chemical reaction?

  1. Identify that chemical reactions involve energy transfer and can be exothermic or endothermic( you tube video)
  2. Compare combustion and respiration in terms of how they release energy

What variables affect the rate of a chemical reaction?

Describe the effects of factors, eg temperature, and catalysts, at the rate of some common chemical reactions.

 

What are some uses around the manufacture of new chemicals?

  1. How do social, ethical and environmental considerations influence decisions about scientific research related to the development and production of new materials?
  2. Describe examples to show where advances in science and/or emerging science and technologies significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities in areas of chemical science such as biochemistry and industrial chemistry

Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students’ skills, knowledge, and understanding in Stage 5.

  • investigate the order of activity of a range of metals
  • evaluate, using scientific evidence, the claims, explanations or predictions made in the media or advertising in relation to a substance, material or product.

More websites

Useful websites to get further material and resources, some go into stage 6 content as well. These resources are not aligned with the NSW syllabus, however, contain excellent resources to understand and extend your knowledge and skills.